Distribution is southern Angola, CAR, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, Southern Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia,Zimbabwe and South Africa. In recent years population was drastically reduced by poaching. Only small numbers remain in reserves.
A huge animal with two horns on the snout and a prehensile upper lip is pointed. Sometimes has bloody skin lesions caused by parasites.
The cow is slightly heavier than the bull. Habitat is woodland with thickets for shelter and water to drink and bathe in. Shrubs and trees of up to 4m are essential for browsing (will even push down trees to reach leaves). Dependant on water, seldom moves further than 15 km from water.
Solitary, Although the bulls spray urine on bushes and have dung heaps they are not territorial animals as home ranges overlap. Bulls fight over cows in oesterus and not over territory. Very aggressive, although it avoids contact, serious fights do occur.
Rests in shade or wallows in the mud when it is hot. The calf usually walks behind the mother.
Eats leaves, small branches, sticks and thorns. When available drinks water daily, usually at night. Sometimes dig in the sand if water has dried up.