Distribution is from the central Zaire rain forest, Gabon, Congo, southern Cameroon, coastal forests through southern Nigeria, Togo, Ghana, Liberia and Guinea.
Syncerus caffer nanus, while physically is quite different to the other African Buffalo, is generally listed as a subspecies although it is very distinct phenotypically and in its habitat. "Hybridization" occurs occasionally between Savannah and Forest buffalos but this alone can hardly account for the wide phenotypic differences.
The Forest buffalo is smaller ("dwarf" = nanus) and has longer red-brown hair; the Savannah species is larger and darker as well as less hairy. The dwarf forest buffalo lives in forest areas of central and western Africa. About 1.1 m (about 3.5 ft) high, it has a red hide and backward-curving horns about 76 cm (about 30 in) long.
The base of the horns stretches horizontally along the forehead and spreads upward and outward in a fairly distinctive manner. It also has very large ears lined with very long pale hair.
it is herbivorous and particularly partial to the tender shoots of grass, reeds and leaves. Lives in groups of 5 - 20.